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How to make soap from animal fat
Lipids are substances insoluble in water. They are derived from animals and plants and are mainly composed of triglycerides, fatty acids.Customarily: usually the room temperature liquid is called oil, solid or semisolid is called fat, both collectively known as grease.Grease is the main raw material of soap making, and the performance and quality of soap are largely determined by the grease used, so the choice of grease is the key to soap making.
1. Main animal fat for making soap.Commonly used soap main animal fat: butter, lard.Butter is the main by-product of fatty acid processing industry and the main raw material of soap soap.Lard is rich in linoleic acid, so it tends to rot when used as soap.When soap is made, semi-hardened non-edible lard is substituted for butter.
2. Extraction of animal fat
Animal fat needs to pay attention to the control of lipase and bacteria before cooking fat, so as to get high quality animal fat.The quality of oil can be improved by washing, decolorization, alkali refining, deodorization, hydrogenation and other processes.
Washing can effectively remove pigment and impurities in oil.Had better be in water temperature (100 ℃).In order to enhance the hydration effect, you can add a mild surfactant, such as sodium phosphate, 0.1% of the amount of oil into a solution of 10%.
Animal fat used for making soap usually needs to remove pigment. The most commonly used is to use acid activated clay for adsorption to remove pigment.Oil decolorization, the temperature is 105-115 ℃, and need to add 0.5% to 1% of the water, more advantageous for decoloring.
3) the alkali refining
Alkali refining is carried out only on special requirements (soap of the highest quality).The proper concentration of sodium hydroxide solution is used in the alkali refining of oil.After decolorization, alkali refining and decolorization of tallow, the oil color can reach 0.5-1.0.
Deodorization of oils used to make soap is not very common.Perfume is often used to mask the smell of soap.
The hydrogenation of oil increases the stability of oil and improves the foam and solubility of soap.In particular, hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid polymers can prevent soap deterioration.Animal fat can be obtained from the saponification of oil, soap base production, soap base drying, plus ingredients, layering, cutting, printing, packaging, and finally made into soap.
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